Matter- Any object which occupy space and have some mass is known as matter.
PHYSICAL NATURE OF MATTER
Matter in made-up of particles
It can be seen when we break any object in several times then the time will come when we get smallest of that object. Therefore we we can say that matter is made up of particles. For example if we take a piece of chalk and we break it multiple times, after sometime we will the smallest part of chalk which is called particle. So we can say that matter is made up of particles.
2. Particles of matter are small in size.
We can prove that particles of matter are small in size by performing an experiment I.e, In this experiment we take a piece of chemical compound named copper sulphate (CuSO4) and 100 ml of water in a jar .After sometime we observe that the colourless water change into blue color. Then we take 10ml of copper sulphate solution from that jar and will mix with 90ml of water contain other jar then again it will change the color of water into blue color. If we will perform this activities several times then we will observe that colourless water changes into blue color. Therefore we can say that particles of matter are small in size.
3. Particles of matter are constantly moving
We can prove this physical nature of matter I.e, particles of matter are constantly moving by performing an activity such as if we burn an incense stick at any corner of room then we can smell the perfume of incense stick because the particles of perfume of an incense stick mix with the particles of air and spread in whole room if the particles of perfume are not moving then we can not smell the perfume of incense stick. Therefore when particles of matter heat then its kinetic energy also increases. So, we can say that particles of matter are constantly moving.
4. Particles of matter attract each other
There is a force of attraction work between the particles of matter that is known as inter molecular force of attraction.
For example, Take a iron nail,piece of chalk and a small piece of brick and also strike a hammer on it one by one then we will observe that the piece of chalk will break easily due to less intermolecular force of attraction between their particles and the piece of brick will less affected than the piece of chalk because it has more force of attraction between their particles than chalk . But we will also observe that the iron nail will not affected with hammer. In this experiment we concluded that particles of matter attract each other so different objects have different force of attraction between their particles.
5. Particles of matter have space between them
We can prove I.e, particles of matter have space between them by performing an activity.
In this process we will take 10g of sugar and 100ml of water in a jar and we will stir it with a glass rod for some time then after will observe that the sugar will dissappear, it exists between the particles of water. So we can say that particles of matter have space between them.