Hello Everyone Welcome in SONU LIVE ,in this post I’m providing you all important questions of CLASS 6TH HISTORY NCERT CHAPTER 9 which will help you in the UPSC Preparation and academic preparation.


Q. How to find out about trade and traders?
Ans- Fine pottery, bowls, plates, and similar things were found in numerous archaeological sites throughout the subcontinent. Traders carry different items, such as gold, gems, spices, and pepper, and sell them in other parts of the subcontinent.
The Potteries were carried by the traders from the places they were made to sell them at other places. South India was famous for gold paper and precious stone. In the Roman empire, people were so valuable that it was known as Black gold. The traders explored several sea routes, many of which followed the coast.
Q. What is the meaning of Sangam poem?
Ans- Sangam poems mention the muvendar, the Tamil word meaning three chiefs used for the head of three ruling families the Cholas, cheras, and the Pandyas, who became powerful in South India around 2300 years ago.
Q. What were the important power centers of the Cholas, Pandyas ?
Ans-Puhar aur Kaveripattinam the port of the Cholas and the Madurai the capital of the Pandyas.
Q. How did the chiefs manage the wealth?

Ans-The chiefs did not collect regular taxes but demanded and received gift from the people. they also used to go on military expedition to collect tribute from neighbouring areas. Some of the wealth they kept from themselves and the rest they distributed among their supporters including members of their family soldiers and poets.
Many poets whose composition was found in the Sangam collection were awarded precious stones, gold, horses, elephants, chariots, and fine cloth.
Q. In which dynasty did Gautami Shri Satakarni belong?
Ans- Satavahanas dynasty
Q. Who were known as Lords of the Dakshinapath?
Ans- Gautamiputra Shri Satakarni and other Satavahana rulers were known as lords of the Dakshinapatha.
Q. Who wrote the Buddhacharitra ?
Ans- Ashwaghosh, a poet who composed a biography of Buddhacharitra, and he lived in the court of Kushana ruler named Kanishka.
Q. What was the second feature of bodhisattvas?
Ans-The second feature of bodhisattvas was supposed to be a person who had attained enlightenment, and after attaining enlightenment, they could live in complete isolation and mediate in peace.
Q. What is Theravada?
Ans-The older form of Buddhism known as Theravada.

Ncert Solution

Why did kings want to control the Silk Route?

Answer: The kings wanted to control the Silk Route due to the following reasons:

  • To collect taxes from the traders travelling along the route.
  • To receive gifts and tributes given by traders to the kings

Question 3: What kinds of evidence do historians use to find out about trade and trade routes? Answer:

Historians use a variety of evidence to learn about trade and trade routes, including:

Material Evidence:

  • Artifacts: Objects like coins, pottery, jewelry, and textiles can provide clues about where goods were produced and traded. Analyzing the materials used and the techniques employed in their creation can reveal trade routes and connections between different cultures.
  • Archaeological remains: Excavations of ancient settlements and trading posts can reveal evidence of markets, warehouses, and shipwrecks. These findings can shed light on the volume and types of goods traded, as well as the infrastructure that supported trade networks.
  • Inscriptions and documents: Inscriptions on monuments and other structures can record trade agreements, tariffs, and descriptions of goods. Documents like bills of lading, customs records, and travel journals can provide detailed information about specific trade transactions and routes.

Literary Sources:

  • Travel accounts: Writings by travelers and merchants offer firsthand descriptions of trade routes, markets, and the goods they encountered. These accounts can be invaluable for understanding the experiences and challenges of long-distance trade.
  • Historical texts: Chronicles, legal documents, and religious texts often mention trade and trade routes, providing valuable insights into the economic and political context of trade.
  • Literary works: Poetry, plays, and epics can sometimes offer fictionalized accounts of trade and trade routes, which can provide clues about the cultural significance of trade and the values associated with it.

Scientific Evidence:

  • Archaeometry: Techniques like chemical analysis and radiocarbon dating can help determine the origin and age of artifacts, providing insights into the movement of goods along trade routes.
  • Paleontology: Studying the remains of animals and plants can provide information about the environmental conditions along trade routes and the types of goods that were likely to have been transported.
  • Genetics: Analyzing the DNA of plants and animals can reveal their migration and trade patterns, shedding light on the movement of goods and people over long distances.

Combined Analysis:

Historians rarely rely on a single type of evidence to understand trade and trade routes. They often combine information from various sources to build a comprehensive picture of the past. For example, they might compare archaeological finds with historical records and literary accounts to verify the existence of a trade route and reconstruct its details.

By using a diverse range of evidence, historians can reconstruct the intricate networks of trade that connected different parts of the world throughout history. This helps us understand the economic, political, and cultural interactions that shaped the development of human societies.

Question 4: What were the main features of Bhakti ? Answer:

Main features of Bhakti:

1. Emphasis on devotion (Bhakti) and individual worship:

  • Bhakti emphasizes a loving relationship between the devotee and their chosen deity.
  • It rejects elaborate rituals and sacrifices, focusing instead on personal devotion and faith.
  • This allows for a more accessible and inclusive form of worship, open to all regardless of social status.

2. Monotheistic tendencies:

  • Though not strictly monotheistic, Bhakti generally focuses on a single deity, encouraging devotion and surrender to that deity.
  • This contrasts with earlier Vedic practices that involved worship of multiple deities and emphasis on rituals.

3. Egalitarianism and social reform:

  • Bhakti challenged the social hierarchy and caste system prevalent in Indian society.
  • Saints and reformers like Kabir, Guru Nanak, and Tukaram preached equality and condemned discrimination based on birth.
  • This led to the rise of new social groups and movements focused on social justice.

4.Use of simple language and devotional hymns:

  • Bhakti saints rejected the complex Sanskrit language and used local dialects and vernacular languages to reach the masses.
  • They composed devotional hymns (bhajans, kirtans) that expressed love and longing for the divine.
  • This helped spread the Bhakti message across various social groups and contributed to the development of regional literature.

5. Guru-disciple relationship:

  • Bhakti emphasizes the importance of a spiritual guide (Guru) who helps disciples on their path towards devotion.
  • The Guru-disciple relationship is based on love, trust, and obedience, and plays a crucial role in spiritual growth.

6. Emphasis on ethical conduct and social service:

  • Bhakti saints taught that true devotion goes beyond mere rituals and requires ethical conduct and social service.
  • They emphasized the importance of compassion, non-violence, and service to others.
  • This led to the establishment of numerous charitable institutions and social welfare initiatives.

7. Mystical union with the divine:

  • The ultimate goal of Bhakti is to achieve a state of mystical union (Moksha) with the divine.
  • This is a state of perfect bliss and liberation from the cycle of birth and death.
  • Bhakti saints used various devotional practices like meditation, chanting, and singing to reach this state.

Impact of Bhakti:

  • The Bhakti movement had a profound impact on Indian society, contributing to social reform, religious revival, and the development of regional languages and literature.
  • Its legacy continues to inspire millions of devotees across the world and remains a vital aspect of Indian religious life.

UPSC level answer:

The Bhakti movement, characterized by its emphasis on devotion and individual worship, monotheistic tendencies, egalitarianism, use of vernacular languages, Guru-disciple relationship, ethical conduct, and mystical union with the divine, significantly impacted Indian society. It challenged the social hierarchy, spread religious ideas to the masses, and contributed to social reform and the development of regional languages and literature. Its influence continues to be felt today, making the study of Bhakti crucial for a comprehensive understanding of Indian history, religion, and society. Question 5 Discuss the reasons why the Chinese pilgrims came to India. Answer

Chinese Pilgrimage to India

Because of the following reasons

1. Religious Fervor and the Quest for Buddhist Knowledge:

  • Buddhism’s Flourishing in China: By the 5th century CE, Buddhism had flourished in China, inspiring a deep yearning among the Chinese populace to deepen their understanding of the faith.
  • Seeking Authenticity: Chinese pilgrims sought to experience the land where Buddha lived, preached. And attained enlightenment. This desire for authenticity fueled their journeys to India.
  • Acquiring Buddhist Texts and Relics: The pilgrims aimed to acquire authentic Buddhist texts. And relics from India to enrich their own monastic libraries and establish legitimacy within the Chinese Buddhist community.

2. Scholarly Pursuit and Intellectual Exchange:

  • Intellectual Curiosity: Chinese pilgrims were not mere devotees but also scholars. And intellectuals driven by a thirst for knowledge. And deeper understanding of Buddhist philosophy and doctrines.
  • Seeking Masters and Teachers: India was renowned for its learned Buddhist scholars and monks. Pilgrims sought their guidance and teachings to enhance their knowledge. And gain deeper insights into Buddhist thought.
  • Translation and Dissemination of Knowledge: Upon returning to China, pilgrims translated Buddhist texts into Chinese, making them accessible to a wider audience. And contributing significantly to the spread of Buddhism within the country.

3. Personal Aspirations and Spiritual Advancement:

  • Religious Merit and Spiritual Growth: The arduous journey to India was seen as a way to accumulate religious merit. And advance on the path to spiritual liberation.
  • Seeking Visions and Divine Encounters: Pilgrims hoped to encounter sacred sites. And experience visions of the Buddha or other deities, enhancing their spiritual journey.
  • Personal Fulfillment and Self-Discovery: For some pilgrims, the journey was an opportunity for personal growth. And self-discovery, allowing them to test their faith and deepen their commitment to Buddhist practice.

4. Geopolitical and Economic Interests:

  • Trade Routes and Cultural Exchange: The Silk Road, connecting China and India, facilitated pilgrimage and fostered cultural exchange. Pilgrims often served as cultural ambassadors, promoting trade. And understanding between the two civilizations.
  • Political and Diplomatic Relations: Diplomatic missions to India sometimes included Buddhist monks, who served as cultural intermediaries. And strengthened political ties between the two empires.

5.Travel and Adventure:

  • Exploration and Adventure: For some pilgrims, the journey was an exciting adventure, offering opportunities to explore new lands, cultures, and customs.
  • Travel Narratives and Literary Inspiration: Their experiences enriched Chinese literature, leading to the creation of travel narratives. And accounts of their journeys that inspired future generations.

Impact of Chinese Pilgrimage:

  • The influx of Chinese pilgrims significantly impacted Indian Buddhism, contributing to the revitalization of monastic centers. And the spread of Buddhist teachings.
  • Their meticulous records of their journeys offer invaluable insights into Indian society, geography, and cultural practices during that period.
  • The exchange of knowledge and ideas between Chinese and Indian Buddhists led to the evolution. And diversification of Buddhist thought and practice.


The motivations for Chinese pilgrimages to India were multifaceted, encompassing religious devotion, scholarly pursuits, personal aspirations, geopolitical interests. And a spirit of adventure. Their journeys forged a lasting cultural connection between the two civilizations. And contributed significantly to the development of Buddhism in both China and India. Question 6: Why do you think ordinary people were attracted to Bhakti?

The Bhakti movement, with its emphasis on devotion, simple practices. And social inclusivity, resonated deeply with ordinary people in India for several reasons.

1. Rejection of Complex Rituals and Hierarchical System:

  • Bhakti offered a direct and accessible path to the divine, free from the elaborate rituals. And expensive sacrifices prescribed by Vedic orthodoxy.
  • This democratized access to spirituality and empowered ordinary people, regardless of their caste or social status, to seek salvation through devotion.
  • Bhakti saints challenged the elitism. And exclusivity of the Brahmanical system, offering an alternative religious path based on personal piety and love for God.

2. Emphasis on Simple Practices and Vernacular Language:

  • Bhakti teachings were often conveyed through simple devotional practices like chanting, singing. And listening to stories about the divine.
  • This made them accessible to even the illiterate masses, allowing them to participate actively in their religious life.
  • The use of local languages instead of Sanskrit helped spread the message of Bhakti. And make it relevant to the cultural context of ordinary people.

3. Focus on Love, Compassion, and Social Justice:

  • Bhakti saints emphasized love, compassion, and equality, challenging the rigid social hierarchy of the time.
  • They condemned discrimination based on caste and birth, advocating for the dignity. And worth of all human beings.
  • This resonated with ordinary people who suffered from social injustices. And sought a more equitable society.

4. Emotional Connection and Spiritual Fulfillment:

  • Bhakti offered an emotional connection with the divine through devotional music, poetry, and stories.
  • This provided comfort, solace, and meaning in the face of everyday struggles and hardships.
  • The personal and intimate nature of Bhakti helped fulfill the spiritual needs of ordinary people in a way that traditional rituals often failed to do.

5. Sense of Community and Belonging:

  • Bhakti encouraged communal worship. And the formation of devotional groups (satsangs).
  • These groups provided a sense of community, belonging. And support, especially for marginalized groups excluded from mainstream society.
  • Sharing devotional experiences and participating in collective rituals fostered a sense of unity. And solidarity among ordinary people.

6. Promise of Liberation and Salvation:

  • Bhakti offered the ultimate goal of liberation (Moksha) from the cycle of birth and death.
  • This was a powerful motivator for ordinary people who yearned for a better life beyond the suffering. And hardships of the present world.
  • Bhakti saints assured them that liberation was attainable through devotion. And faith, regardless of their social standing or past deeds.


The Bhakti movement’s appeal to ordinary people can be attributed to its simplicity, accessibility, emphasis on love and compassion, emotional connection with the divine, sense of community. And promise of liberation. By offering a meaningful alternative to the existing religious order, Bhakti empowered ordinary people. And significantly impacted the social and cultural landscape of India.

Question 7 List five things that you buy from the market. Which of these are made in the city/village in which you live and which are brought by traders from other areas? Answer:

Unfortunately, I don’t have personal experiences or needs like humans, so I cannot buy things from markets. To help you, I can provide a list of five items commonly purchased in markets with information on their possible origins:

1. Vegetables: * Made locally: Some vegetables, like leafy greens and seasonal produce, are likely grown locally by farmers in the surrounding area. * Brought by traders: Other vegetables, like exotic fruits or vegetables not in season, may be transported from further away by traders.

2. Spices: * Made locally: Certain spices, like chili peppers or turmeric, might be grown and processed locally if the climate allows. * Brought by traders: Many spices, especially those native to other regions, like cinnamon or cloves, are likely brought by traders from areas specializing in their production.

3. Clothing: * Made locally: Some clothing items, especially handloom textiles or simple garments, might be produced by local artisans or small workshops. * Brought by traders: Many clothing items, particularly branded apparel or mass-produced garments, are likely manufactured in factories located in other towns or cities and transported by traders.

4. Grains: * Made locally: Grains like rice or wheat might be grown and harvested in the surrounding fields, especially in agricultural regions. * Brought by traders: In areas with limited agricultural land or specific dietary needs, grains might be transported from regions with surplus production.

5. Handicrafts: * Made locally: Many handicrafts, like pottery, wood carvings, or woven baskets, are likely crafted by local artisans using traditional techniques and materials. * Brought by traders: Some handicrafts, especially those requiring specific materials or specialized skills, might be made elsewhere and sold by traders in local markets.

Question 8

There are several major pilgrimages performed by people in India today. Find out about anyone of them and write a short description.

[Hint: Who can go on the pilgrimage—men, women or children? How long does it take? How do people travel? What do they take with them? What do they do when they reach the holy place? Do they bring anything back with them?] Answer-Amarnath Yatra: A High-Altitude Pilgrimage in India The Amarnath Yatra is one of the most challenging and revered pilgrimages in India. Dedicated to Lord Shiva, it takes place every year during the summer months (July-August) in the Kashmir Himalayas. This arduous journey attracts thousands of devotees from all walks of life, seeking blessings and spiritual fulfillment.

Who can go on the pilgrimage?

The Amarnath Yatra is open to all, regardless of gender, age, or religion. However, due to the extreme weather conditions and challenging terrain, it’s recommended for physically fit individuals. Children and the elderly should participate with caution and proper preparation.

How long does it take?

The duration of the pilgrimage varies depending on the chosen route and individual pace. The most popular route, from Baltal to Amarnath cave, takes approximately 4-5 days to complete, covering roughly 14 kilometers. Other routes, like Pahalgam to Amarnath cave, are longer and can take up to 7-8 days.

How do people travel?

The pilgrimage route is accessible by foot, pony, or “palki” (a sedan carried by porters). Many devotees choose to walk, considering it a part of the spiritual experience. Ponies and palkis are available for those who face physical limitations or prefer a faster pace.

What do people take with them?

Pilgrims are advised to pack light clothing for the summer heat and warm woolen clothes for the cold nights in the mountains. Sturdy hiking shoes, rain gear, a backpack, and essential medicines are also recommended. Additionally, many pilgrims carry religious items like puja materials and sacred water from their hometowns.

What do they do when they reach the holy place?

The culmination of the pilgrimage is reaching the Amarnath cave, which houses a naturally formed ice lingam (a phallic symbol representing Lord Shiva). Devotees offer prayers, perform rituals, and seek blessings. The cave also offers mesmerizing views of the surrounding glaciers and snow-capped peaks, adding to the spiritual experience.

Do they bring anything back with them?

Many pilgrims bring back “prasad” (holy offerings) from the Amarnath cave, which they distribute to their families and friends. These offerings can be in the form of blessed water, sweets, or other religious items. They also carry back memories of the challenging yet rewarding journey and the spiritual awakening it brings.

Here are some additional details about the Amarnath Yatra:

  • It is considered one of the holiest pilgrimages in Hinduism, alongside the Char Dham Yatra.
  • The Amarnath cave is believed to be the place where Lord Shiva revealed the secrets of creation and immortality to his consort, Parvati.
  • The pilgrimage route is lined with langars (community kitchens) that provide free food and shelter to pilgrims.
  • The Amarnath Yatra is also a significant cultural event, showcasing the traditions and hospitality of the people of Kashmir.

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