Aim of French Revolution

*It was the starting of Nationalism in France and the main objective was to build of collective identity in French people.
*Ideas like Le Citizen and la Patrie promoted the belief of united community who enjoy equal rights in the constitution.

Napoleonic Codeeat laid the equality before law, all privileges were abolished at birth.

Right to property to french citizen were granted.

Restriction on guild were removed.

Communication and transport were improved.

Administration was simplified.

Hero of two worlds and unification of Italy
Giuseppe Garibaldi was the hero of two worlds.he was born on 1807 and played important rolein unification of Italy.

Two Sacred societies were removed, Young Italy in Marseilles and Young Europe in Berne.

According to his believe ,Italy wouldn’t have survived as smaller states and it needed to be Unified.


She was named Marianne in France which was a Christian of Christian name,useful to promote the idea of people’s nation. Important features of Marianne was inspired by liberty and Republic.


She was allegory of Germany. She w ore beautiful crown meet up of oak leaves. It was distinctively hung from St. Paul Church ceiling to represent liberal revolution.

Some of the characteristics features of conservative regimesIntolerant to criticism and dissent


Censored press

Suppressed questions which challenged their legitimacy.

Salient features of the Treaty of Vienna

Bourbon dynasty was restored in France.
France lost its conquered territories.
Kingdom of Netherlands consisting of Belgium and Genoa were set up to block French expansion.
Prussia gained new territories which included a fraction of Saxony.
Northern Italy was under the control of Austria and Poland under Russia.

The main course of the revolt in 1848 .

Europe faced difficult time as far as economic condition are concerned during those years.

There were more people but jobs were less.

In 1848 widespread unemployment and food storages aggravated the population.

Features of the Frankfurt Parliament831 representatives were elected on 18th May 1848 which marched to Frankfurt Parliament.

Parliament was monopolized by working woman and man.

King of Prussia, Friedrich William lb rejected constitutional monarchy.

The most important person said later to this chapter

  1. What was the aim of the French RevolutionClick here
  2. What did the Napoleonic Code establish Click here
  3. Who was the hero of two worlds and what was his role in the unification of Italy Click here
  4. Write about to female allegories in the 19th century. click here
  5. Name some of the characteristics feature of conservative regimes. click here\
  6. Write the salient features of the Treaty of Vienna. click here
  7. Explain the National filling and imagination. Click here
  8. What was the main course of the revolt in 1848 Click here
  9. Write any three features of the Frankfurt Parliament.Click here
  10. Why did liberal nationalist create secret societies Click here
  11. Why were Balkan nations in crisis Click here