Revolt of 1857 is also considered the first war of Indian Independence because this was the most significant movement of resistance against European colonial rule or British rules.
Causes of the Revolt
It was known that Nana Sahib was refused pension as he was the adopted son of Peshwa Baji Rao – II.
like Awadh(Lucknow) was annexed in 1856, on a charge of Maladministration, and Jhansi was annexed owing to Doctrine of Lapse.
As we know that Indian soldiers were paid low salaries, they could not rise above the rank of Subedar, and also they were racially insulted.
Something was seen in the Indian society like social reforms by the British was against the people’s will (widow remarriage, abolition of sati, the school for girls, Christian missionaries, etc).
Indian soldiers were asked to use the Enfield Rifles with greased (by pork and beef) cartridges.
There were many economic grievances like heavy taxation, discriminatory tariff policy; destruction of traditional handicrafts that hit peasants, artisans, and small zamindars.
Outbreak of the Revolt
Bengal Resentment, this was the resentment in which 19 native infantry of Behrampur, refused to use the newly introduced Enfield Rifle.
Mangal Pandey was of 34th native infantry fired at the sergeant major of his regiment. Known as a part of Mutiny of Barrackpur.
At Barrackpur, the rulers were loyal to the British, the soldiers revolted as in Gwalior and Indore. In some places, people revolted before the sepoys community.
Initially, the rebels were successful. Many people of Europe were killed, police stations and law courts were attacked and revenue records were destroyed. But, the revolution was soon suppressed.
Causes Behind the Failure of the Revolt
There was a lack of unity and poor organization of the revolt and a lack of common motive for participating in the revolt.
All the sections of the society were not affected or participated in the revolt. The equipment of the military of rebels was inferior.
And also some of the rulers like Scindhias, Nizam, and Holkars helped Britishers in repressing the revolt.